英國玻璃運動之父基斯.卡明斯Keith Cummings

一生的教育貢獻

他的著作,被譽為玻璃聖經,受全球廣大迴響

他的教育,建立英國最完整且專業的玻璃學院

博物館、皇室爭相收藏

世界級博物館、英國皇室皆典藏作品

英國名人榜殿榮譽

 只有對社會具有重大貢獻的人,才擁有被登錄「英國名人榜殿堂」的殊榮。在物理學界,有史蒂芬.霍金;在玻璃學界,有基思.卡明斯。

 

「我已經用玻璃工作了將近60年,在這段時間我和玻璃都發生了變化。禪宗哲學家說,站在同一條河的岸邊,不可能兩次完全相同,因為觀察者和河流都會有所不同。我與玻璃的長期關係中,所有嘗試都呼應這一點。」--Keith Cummings

“I have been working with glass for almost 60 years, but of course both I and the material have changed during this time. The Zen philosopher states that it is impossible to stand on the bank of the same river twice as both observer and river will be different, and any attempt by me to make sense of my long relationship with glass must reflect this.”

世界70個國家博物館的收藏見證,輝煌的英國國家玻璃藝術隊伍

在歷史上,英國於十八世紀和十九世紀末,引領了改變世界面貌的兩次工業革命。第一次革命讓人力走向機械化,進入「蒸汽時代」,第二次革命點亮世界,大規模的電力運用讓人類進入「電力時代」。當生產模式從人力到機械,大量規格標準化生產,也完全顛覆玻璃的世界。

在工業革命之前,當人們談到「玻璃」時,腦中或許浮現的都是華麗的水晶燈、繁複到令人驚嘆的高腳酒杯、亦或充滿神秘傳說的威尼斯慕拉諾島?工業革命後,當人們再談到「玻璃」時,腦中已經不是這些精巧、細緻、繁複的玻璃工藝。

1851年全世界第一場世界博覽會,在英國倫敦舉行,舉世震驚的玻璃水晶宮,面積是聖彼得教堂的四倍,約為八個半足球場,用了八萬四千平方公尺的玻璃,但施工期僅有短短六個月即完工。

「玻璃」自此開始,不再只是個人的身份地位的彰顯,而是輝煌文明進入一個全新時代的象徵。

英國以傾國之力,連續發動兩次工業革命,重新定義世界樣貌,也改變玻璃幾千年來的生產模式。「玻璃工業」之戰或許已大致抵定,但「玻璃藝術」之戰才正要開始。

Introducing a national collective of British glass artists with a body of work that can be found in the collections of 70 renowned museums worldwide. In the 18th through the end of the 19th centuries, England lead two industrial revolutions that changed the world. The first mechanized the world through the steam engine, the second lit up the world through electricity. As manufacturing shifted away from people and toward machinery, products became mass produced and standardized. Many industries were destabilized including the glass industry. Prior to the industrial revolution, when people spoke about “glass”, they spoke about ornate crystal lamps, intricate stemmed wine glasses or perhaps the enigmatic island of Murano. Following the industrial revolution, objects made from “glass” were no longer seen as delicate and complex curios. Glass lost its association with the upper class its standing as an “elite art”. The first World’s Fair, The Great Exhibition, was held in 1851 in London at the Crystal Palace. Four times larger than St. Peter’s Basilica, spanning approximately eight and a half football fields, the structure was built from 84,000 square meters of glass. Construction took a mere 6 months to complete. From this point on, glass was no longer an indication of status. It became the symbol of a new era for human civilization.  England changed the foundation of civilization through two major industrial revolutions which in turn changed a thousands years old glass production model. Glass industrialization may have plateaued but glass art has only just begun. 

光榮之戰 第一代:一個少年的疑問,掀起一場光榮革命

又有誰能料到,自1760年第一次工業革命以來,事隔200年,這場革命仍在延燒。

1960年,一個高挑、斯文、約莫二十初頭,對玻璃懷抱無限熱情的少年,走進維多利亞與亞伯特博物館。這座由英國皇室一手推動建立的博物館,不僅收藏世界第一屆世博會的展品,更匯聚了自十九到二十世紀以來,最經典、最美、最重要的生活藝術品。但少年沒有被迷惑,他的目標堅定且明確:玻璃藝術才是他的一切。因為當他回頭翻查歷史,想深入了解這些美麗、迷人的玻璃藝術品到底是如何製作時,卻驚訝的發現:沒有文獻可供了解。在歷史中,玻璃的技術似乎成了一種隱藏的、迷離的、消失的神秘藝術。

彷彿有著不可告人的秘密。

他覺悟到,唯有透過自己不斷的實驗,才是前進的唯一途徑。他踏過無止盡的失敗,花費大量的時間,不斷改進製程。他回望歷史,從中獲得啟發,把遺失的、殘破的、斷裂的銜接,把過去、現在、未來重新連結,為彼此提供線索和起點。歷經爐火的淬鍊,當年那個充滿熱情的青年,漸漸成為眾人仰望的教授。如他所說:「在1970前,在英國要用窯鑄玻璃創作是不可能的。在1980後,有了一個標準流程。」

專門從事窯鑄玻璃創作的畢業生陸續出現。最具代表性的藝術家之一柯林.雷德便是在80年代初期畢業。

Nobody could have predicted that fires from the first industrial revolution in 1760 would never go out. The movement influenced generations following including that of a tall, pensive, young man in his early twenties with a passion for glass who strode into the Victoria and Albert Museum in 1960. The V&A is an institution sanctioned by the royal family and it contains within its treasury the world’s largest collection of post-classical sculpture. Its selection of lifestyle articles from the 19th and 20th centuries is unparalleled. The young Cummings explored the vast halls and despite the wealth of options presented, kept going back to glass art. Later, as he began to delve into how these beautiful and mesmerizing glass objects were produced and their history, he realized there was no supporting literature.  In the history of glass art, glass production techniques have been well-guarded secrets, selectively passed on or quite often, taken to the grave. Cummings realized that constant experimentation was the only path to progress. Through failure after failure, through years of laborious work, he improved on his technique. He looked to the past to guide him into the future. With the passing of time, that passionate young man evolved into an esteemed professor. He says, “For example, casting, which was almost impossible in 1970, became a standard procedure by 1980, as evidenced in the work of alumni like Colin Reid and Tessa Clegg, whose student work did so much to refine the process.” Graduates specializing in kiln-cast glass began to emerge. One of the most exceptional was Colin Reid who graduated in the early 80s.

無可取代的教育貢獻

60年代初期的英國是「藝術教育的黃金時期」,由於號召教育改革,因此教師可從材料、技術、應用、哲學各方面,自由嘗試設計課程,讓學生和教育工作人員都可以透過對學科和材料的探索,重新定義和拓展教育本質。在威尼斯與美國玻璃工作室運動的影響之下,吹製玻璃風靡全球,當時的英國大學在吹製玻璃領域,有美國玻璃工作室運動之父:哈維.利特爾頓Harvey Littleton的學生薩姆赫爾曼Sam Herman在英國領導。

但基斯.卡明斯卻走了一條完全相反的道路。他將自己畢生研究毫無保留的傳授給學生,建立當時全世界極罕見的窯鑄玻璃教育系統,除了技術之外,他亦溯源人類玻璃歷史,讓學生了解世界玻璃歷史脈絡。他的課程,吸引來自全球的學生,這種有別於吹製的創作技術,讓學生們可以自由選擇,也讓英國從事窯鑄玻璃創作的畢業生,自70年代後開始出現。

Cummings’ contribution to glass art is irreplaceable.
1960s UK was the nation’s golden age in arts education due to the educational reform movement. Educators were at liberty to design a syllabus influenced by material, technique, usage and philosophy. This freedom allowed students and educators alike to redefine and expand on art through schooling and experimentation. Influenced by the glass movements in Venice and the United States, glass blowing was all the rage. At the time, glass-blowing studios at universities in the UK were led by Sam Herman, a student of Harvey Littleton, founder of the studio glass movement in the US. Yet Keith Cummings did not choose to follow in the footsteps of these founding fathers. After graduating he shared his knowledge and established a cast glass system never before seen. Aside from technique he explored the extensive history of glass in order to understand the context and evolution of the art. Cummings’ courses drew students from all over the world because his technique offered students a freedom not possible with blown glass.  It also led to an influx of cast glass graduates who began working in the 70s.

英國皇室也是他的粉絲

除了教學與著作,他的藝術創作也被英國重量級博物館:維多利亞與亞伯特博物館收藏,連英國皇室安妮公主都成為他的收藏家。對於研究嚴謹的基斯.卡明斯,在鑄造玻璃領域歷經二十年的探索,直到1980年認為時機成熟,出版《玻璃成型技術》(Techniques of Glassforming)一書,在全球引起廣大迴響。

這是一本想了解玻璃的必讀著作,更被譽為玻璃界的「聖經」。

In addition to his contributions in education and literature, his work can be found in the collections of prestigious institutions including the Victoria and Albert Museum; Princess Anne is also a collector. For Keith Cummings, a stringent researcher, it took twenty years of exploring the medium before he felt his findings were ready to be published. Techniques of Glassforming was released in 1980 to great worldwide response. This publication is a classic for anyone who wants to understand glass and is widely recognized as the glass worker’s bible. 

史上第一位!玻璃藝術家進入名人榜殿堂

2003年基斯.卡明斯獲選登錄英國Who’s Who名人堂,成為該榮譽中第一位,也是唯一的一位玻璃領域學者和藝術家。此名人堂極具權威性,只有對英國具有巨大貢獻及影響力的人才能登錄其中。這不止是一項榮譽,也證明他對英國舉足輕重的地位與能力。

Who‘s Who是一面鏡子,在這面鏡子裡,反映自身成就對社會的貢獻。Who’s Who is a mirror in which society glimpses a reflection of its own achievement.——《The Times》
The world’s first glass artist included in the Who’s Who list. Who’s Who is a global list of influential people published annually. Keith Cummings was invited to the 2003 list, making him the first glass artist and scholar to be included since the publication’s inception. Not only is this an honor, it validates Cummings’s influence in his field and country.

Keith Cummings


1993至今 英國伍爾弗漢普頓大學藝術與設計學院玻璃研究教授

2010伍爾弗漢普頓大學玻璃創意與創新聯合組織者

2008伍爾弗漢普頓大學玻璃系聯合組織者和演講者

2002受邀在愛丁堡藝術學院工藝委員會發表演講

1993受邀維多利亞與亞伯特博物館發表演講

1993-1997英國皇家藝術學院陶瓷與玻璃系評審

1992-1994愛丁堡藝術學院碩士評審

1989-1993英國伍爾弗漢普頓大學玻璃首席講師

1986-1989皇家藝術學院玻璃與陶瓷學院高級導師

1980皇家藝術學院主講演講

1967-1986斯托布里奇藝術學院玻璃高級講師

教育貢獻:

1994-2001伍爾弗漢普頓大學研究委員會主席與總負責人

1991成立藝術與設計學院藝術碩士聯合系統

1991建立藝術與設計學院研究分級,並獲首屆博士研究項目資助

重要出版書籍:

1980《玻璃成型技術》

2002《玻璃成型史》

2002《窯鑄玻璃技術》

2009《當代窯鑄玻璃》

榮譽

2003 獲選入英國Who`s Who名人錄

1972-1976國家藝術與設計文憑理事會(NCDAD)

英國當代玻璃學會名譽終身會員

英國工藝協會成員

典藏紀錄

倫敦維多利亞與亞伯特博物館

美國紐約康寧博物館

巴黎裝飾藝術博物館

瑞士洛桑裝飾藝術博物館

英國工藝品委員會

英國伯明罕博物館和美術館

丹.克萊因

英國布羅德菲爾德玻璃博物館

英國希普利美術館

蘇格蘭國家博物館

英國皇室安妮公主

上海大學

上海玻璃博物館

美國明尼阿波利斯美術館

美國拉辛工藝博物館

回應文章