觀張毅先生的藝術造境

文/王行恭

台師大設計所兼任教授/《至善前行》策展顧問


美術工藝的創造,是經年累月的文化經營,反覆積聚而生成的。其中,蘊涵著藝術創作者,對於自然、技藝、材料及美學意識的智慧,傳承,以及生命多樣層次的體驗。

病中,張毅先生接受訪談,即是最後一次公開露面,他還是一往如前的論述著;他曾再再語重心長的提到:「工藝美術不能脫離過去、對歷史的觀照……要有歷史的心態,如此,才能與過去連結……」這是他一生創作的基調;我相信,做為一位堅定信念的創作者,這也是他根植於生命與作品中的中心信仰。

張毅先生不是坐而論道者,他是不折不扣的起而行的創作者;無論在文學創作、在電影創作。甚至,他一生中最鉅大的一部作品──琉璃工房的琉璃藝術的創作上,他均是傲世獨行的先行者。我們都可以在他各類樣態的作品中,讀出他「發自心、表諸相」的「造境」。

海寧王國維曾在他的鉅作《人間詞話》一書中,開宗明義的講到:「詞以境界為最上,有境界則自成高格……」又言及:「有造境,有寫境,此理想與寫實二派之所由分。然二者頗難分別,因大詩人所造之境,必合乎自然,所寫之境,亦必鄰於理想故也。」王國維先生所言,雖然著墨在文學上的創造,但還其道理,亦兼及所有的藝術創作。他所謂的「造境」是處於理想狀態的道德與美學意識,而「寫境」則是自然現實的樣貌,也就是偉大藝術家的「造境」手段,是「以寫真現實之境,表理念思想之界」。簡而言之,延伸王國維先生的「造境」之說;創造者應從歷史文化為基礎的角度去思考,並集其鮮明的性格與創作願景,方能實現最高的美學價值。

張毅先生統領琉璃工房,開闢了琉璃藝術的獨有道路,出類拔萃的作品中,更充份地呈現出生活之美、文化之美及人性健康之美。其作品所創造的價值,呈現出社會性格,具較高的道德及美學意識,它得以深化並有益於人心,並標誌著社會文明的進步,是真實美的理想境界。工房的每件作品,都會附上一首短詩,表現作品內涵的意境與美學意識。這一萬多首的短詩,字字出自張毅的創作,他以文學結合琉璃作品的史無前例的表現形式,即是「境界為上」的手段,也正符合王國維先生的「有境界,自成高格,自有名句」的真實寫照。

張毅先生獨創的藝術創作道路,一路走來是在浪漫寫實的基礎上,永遠堅持他個人清晰自覺的歷史追求,並將其藝術成果的造象,還原成創作內涵的情境。並以最淺顯的藝術形式陳述,引領觀者耽入他所營造的意境之中,此即是張毅「造境」的本質。本次展覽中,我們可以經由他一萬多件為作品所創作的「短詩」,以及其他眾琉璃藝術作品,透過現實與理想的連結,今古歷史的交織、平易近人的美學元素等,讀出張毅先生所創造出的絢爛多彩的藝術價值與最高的美學境界。

On The Vision of Chang Yi

by Wang Hsin Kong

National Taiwan Normal University Department of Design Adjunct Professor/Exhibition Consultant

An artist’s craft is honed and evolves over a lifetime. Contained within an accumulated body of work is their response to nature, art, material and aesthetics – filtered through a multifaceted lived experience.

In one of his final interviews, Chang Yi mused, “Art and craft can not be separated. To forge a connection with the past, one must first have an understanding of and care for one’s heritage and history”. Not only has this philosophical outlook guided his work, I believe it to have been an intrinsic element that guided his life and art.

Whether in literature, film or LIULI, Chang Yi followed up his words with actions. One of the greatest works of his life – LIULIGONGFANG, was conceived from his pioneering spirit. From Chang’s LIULI art, we experienced his heartfelt vision. In Poetic Remarks in the Human World, poet and historian Wang Guowei writes, “The most important element to consider is setting a high standard; set the standard and the rest will follow”. Chang Yi set the standard and showed us the possibilities when tenacity is matched by integrity and vision.

Chang Yi broke ground with LIULIGONGFANG, paving the way for LIULI art. From these exceptional creations we were exposed to the beauty of life, the beauty of literature and the beauty of living well. These designs revealed the character of our society and an aspiration for a higher moral and aesthetic standard. They enriched our hearts and showed us our potential; they occupy the ideal space of true and tangible beauty. Each LIULI design is accompanied by a poem that aligns with the philosophy and aesthetic of the piece. These poems that join together literary and liuli expressions speak to the higher standard Chang operates from.

Chang Yi’s self-aware pursuit of heritage has yielded artistic achievements rife with intention. Offering his message through a collection of LIULI poetry and sculptures, from past to present, this exhibition welcomes us into the orbit of Chang Yi’s brilliant and elevated universe. 

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